Pit Bikes – How to Decide Which One to Buy

A pit bike differs from the dirt bikes and the mini motos in the size of their engines and the power packed in their engines. A pit bike usually has a larger engine and comes fitted with a manual gearbox and gears whereas minimotos come packed with automatic   transmission  and a centrifugal clutch.

The average maximum speed for most of the Pit bikes available readily in the market is anywhere between 40-50mph, but if you add a few accessories to your bike, you can surely get a lot more fire and power from your engine.

It is because of these performance enhancing parts, which are now becoming readily available and the otherwise constant improvement in the performance of the bikes that people have started taking a lot more interest in these bikes. It has also resulted in the setting up of various Pit Bike races and shows on international level. The popularity of this bike is going the dirt bike way. Leagues and international venues are being setup in a fashion similar to the way in which dirt biking was promoted.

Dirt bikes and dirt biking became a fashion and a sport for the adventure lovers in the 90s. There appeared a lot of leagues and similarly sponsors around that time. Dirtbiking stars suddenly became famous overnight and names like Destry Abbot, Jeremy McGrath, Derek Costella and Ryan Ambrigo became idols of dirtbiking enthusiasts.

These pro dirtbikers are a regular appearance at the famous races and shows at Las Vegas each year. These people are now also promoting pit bikes and have been spotted at various pit biking events.

Pit bikes of late have found a lot of manufacturers, both those manufacturing out of their own garage and the large companies involved in the manufacturing of other bikes as well.

Pit bikes are available in the market upwards of $500 and the price increases with the engine power, and the make. For a Pit biking enthusiast a good choice would be MonsterMoto’s 125CC bike. This bike has a 4 stroke air cooled engine and the maximum power that it can generate is roughly 9HP @ 8500 rpm. The compression ratio is about 9.6:1.

This is a good value buy because the engine is made by a company that also supplies engines to Honda, which manufactures sports bikes for events like Moto Grand Prix (Moto GP)

You can also customize your Pit bike like people do to their dirt bikes. While you can add a few parts to enhance the look of your bike, you can add a few to increase the bike’s performance. You can buy a coloured muffler to enhance you bike’s look for about $90 and you can also buy a BBR style exhaust, a stainless steel exhaust for increasing the performance of the bike.

You can similarly buy different fuel systems, carburetors etc. to improve the efficiency of the bike and also buy various accessories like alloy wheels to enhance the bikes looks.

Truly speaking, Dirt bikes and pit bikes are here to stay and will continue to rush adrenaline through the blood of all those who love adventure sitting on two wheels.

Degree Training Available Online

With the continual advancement of technology everything has become easier from reading the news to communicating with friends. One of the more recent advancements is the ability to earn an education online. Interested individuals can enter degree training online to make their desire of earning an education possible. Numerous accredited online colleges and universities offer degree distinctions in almost every job and career across the country.

Let’s talk first about the beneficial factors of earning a degree online. Prospective students will be able to earn their degree solely online. This removes the hassle of commuting to a campus, finding parking, etc. The ability to train online is a benefit to individuals who can’t stop working to earn a degree at a traditional college. With people having numerous avenues of responsibilities gaining an education will make it possible for them to raise their knowledge and career options from home. Most online degree programs let students choose their schedule and study pace, meaning if one course is particularly hard for an individual they are allotted more time to complete the course before moving on to another course.

Training methods will differ depending on the subject and course. Typically students complete work online and communicate with their professor and other classmates via e-mail and classroom databases. Students may have phone meeting times or video   transmission  courses. In a phone meeting students will check in with their professor and other classmates to go over course material and findings. A video  transmission  course will have the professor teaching while students watch him through a video  transmission . These type of courses are not usually integrated into a normal degree program. Most students will not have to communicate with people in this manner.

Online colleges offer training programs from certificates to PhD’s to qualified students. Let’s look briefly at what each level of education is offered to students, to gain a better understanding of what a degree program online looks like. Certificate programs are offered online in a variety of fields. Length will vary depending on the subject. In general certificate programs will take around three to six months to complete. Students who enroll in these programs are usually industry professionals brushing up on new techniques or technology.

As associate’s degree program will have students working through a one to two year program, depending on the field. An associate’s degree program provides students with coursework that establishes a foundation in their field. This foundation can be used to enter a profession as an assistant or use it as a base to gain higher education later after a few years of work experience. Gaining a bachelor’s degree is the most popular form of degree because almost every profession lists this degree level as a requirement prior to being hired. A bachelor’s degree program typically takes a student four years to complete. Knowledge gained at this level of schooling provides numerous career options and a foundation to enter graduate programs. Online programs allow students to continue education and earn a master’s degree and/or a PhD in their chosen field. These programs can last from two to four years and typically are pursued by individuals who want to enter managerial or supervisory positions within their respected field.

Don’t let the opportunity to earn a degree pass you by. Use the available technology to gain an accredited online education in a field of your choice. Enter a fulfilling career by enrolling in an online degree program today.

DISCLAIMER: Above is a GENERIC OUTLINE and may or may not depict precise methods, courses and/or focuses related to ANY ONE specific school(s) that may or may not be advertised at PETAP.org.

Copyright 2010 – All rights reserved by PETAP.org.

How to Conduct a Viral Marketing Campaign?

Have you ever heard the saying, ‘the news spread like fire?’ Well, you must have, since this is a very common phrase in English language, and one often uses it to describe the very nature of man that inherently makes him a very capable messenger.

What is meant by this theory is that man, no matter how primitive or civilized, will always stick to his basic games in this world. He would always keep not ‘an’ but both eyes out to see what others are doing. Every man has a nose, which is too long so that he knows not what to do with it, and eventually he sticks it into other people’s business. And under this very nose is his mouth. And thus he can babble and spread around what he learns.

But if you had always cursed people like your next-door-neighbors who made it a habitual routine to crane up their neck and babble all over about your life, it is time to change your approach a little bit. People like your neighbors are actually the ones who can help you to make your business grow!

How, you ask? Well, viral marketing strategy is the answer. This way, you can post all your content in the sites and provide you link in there as well so that the online visitors can follow you to the table conference table where you can cement your deals. But for that, you have to make sure that the customers make a bee for your amber-thick, caramelized and lip smacking opportunities. For this, you will need to use the most effective strategies. Here are some that you can use:

o The first hit mantra would be ‘free’. Relax, we are not talking about a massive drawback in bank balance. You do not have to sell off everything you own to give away stuff for free. After all, we have not opened up a charity here, have we? Just let some software, games, ebooks, email account services or screen savers be available for free. This will hardly affect you, and the return will be high. People love to get things for free. When they see that you are offering them things at no cost, they will rely on you. And this will establish a connection between you and your customers which will eventually pay off to your advantage.

o The second mantra is to be creative. No, you do not have to be a Pulitzer Prize winner to pull this one off. You just have to keep everything simple. Provide all the information, keep your article compact and short so that it is easy to remember. The transmission should not be corrupted. Make the message as comprehensive and attractive as you can. For example: “Check out our new free ebooks. Turn the pages…and pay nothing…all at name of yoursite (dot)com.

o No matter whatever your web posts are, be it mail, blogs or articles, make sure that the transmission is very easy and uncomplicated. Use all the technical support that you can to make sure that your logistics can survive. You must make all the effort to convey the image and purpose of your website properly and satisfactorily.

o Another way to get famous is by getting famous. In order to assure that people read your web content, you have to write and post your work anywhere and where ever in the net world. If you write articles for other sites or publications, make sure that you slip in the name of your site there as well.

This way, yow will be able to advertise for your site and this will enhance your exposure. The key mantra to success in business enterprise is a grand exposure. You have to expose yourself to your customers, and offer them the information that they would need to rely on you. This way, you will be able to build a deeper bond with them, and this will create a positive buzz about your work. And soon more deals will zoom into your workplace!

Angina – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Angina is a term generally used to refer a kind of tightening sensation. However, there are many sub classes of angina and it all depends on the area, which is suffering from this kind of tightening discomfort. One of the well-known sub classes of angina are like Bowelgina, which is also called abdominal angina. There are also sub classes of angina, which are a threat to life. One such sub class is called Ludwig’s angina, which is caused when the floor of the mouth is exposed to some sort of infection or in other words, dental infections. However, although angina has many sub classes when looked in scientifically, generally, the term angina is commonly used to denote a sub class called angina pectoris. Angina pectoris is a serious pain that is experienced in the torso area or chest.

Symptoms of Angina

The symptoms associated with this disorder are quite difficult to distinguish, as it could range from heartburn or other kind normal chest pain to heavy heart attack. However, the good news here is that there are certain signs, which could be very much helpful in realizing the angina attack. Some people will have to face a big deal of discomfort although they are not subjected to face heavy pain. In common words, angina can be defined as burning or squeezing of torso area, torso tightening, heaviness of chest and choking sensation etc. Usually, these feelings may last not more than five minutes. However, getting an ECG is the best option to identify angina pectoris.

Looking deeper into angina, there are basically two types. The first type is called stable angina, which actually refers to symptoms demonstration after one has worked out his body with some exercises like lifting heavy weight and jogging etc. Of course, the second type is called Unstable Angina. Unstable Angina could be quite dangerous as it occurs without any kind of provocation. It is because of blood clots, which will be released from the blood vessels. In fact, angina itself is a kind of symptom of a heart disorder called myocardial ischemia. It is actually regarding the blocking, narrowing as well as tightening of the blood vessels. To be more specific, it is all about the arteries, which are busy in supplying the oxygenated blood to human heart. When the arteries are narrowed, the blood flow will be quite difficult. In fact, fat is said to be the main culprit usually causing these problems.

Treatment for Angina

The most preferred way of treating angina is aspirin. Aspirin has some blood thinning qualities, which will in turn make the blood flow easy and fast. Hence, the blood will reach all parts of human body. In addition, aspirin will also help to dissolve little blood clots, which are the reason behind angina pains. On the other hand, there are also some other treating methods like magnesium administration, which is usually recommended for mild angina. Magnesium injections are also used to treat severe angina cases. It is strictly advised to consult the family physician before going with any kind of treatment.

Botox Facts

Botox injections are used for a variety of medical reasons, but can also be used cosmetically. When the drug is injected under the skin, it acts as a muscle relaxer by blocking nerve transmission in the face. This procedure can reduce the sagging, fine lines, and wrinkles that are associated with aging. There are a few things, however, which can interfere with the effectiveness of the procedure. Keeping these facts in mind will help you to achieve the best possible results.

Age is a Factor

Botox injections are most effective for patients under the age of forty. If you’re over 40, the injections will still work, but they will be less effective and it will take longer to achieve your desired results. Once you’ve reached this age, you begin to lose fat in your face. The fine lines and wrinkles that you’re seeing are no longer due to muscle tension, but to actually tissue loss, which cannot be reversed with this drug. A series of injections will still add youth to your appearance, but may not be able to completely eliminate fine lines and wrinkles.

Keep Side Effects in Mind

While many patients experience no side effects from an injection series, others develop headaches or feel nauseous after receiving their shots. Before you have a series of injections, you should be sure that you’re not allergic to the drug. Those who are allergic may experience respiratory difficulties after a shot series. Be sure to inform your cosmetic surgeon of any other medications that you’re taking, so that he can check for drug interactions. A drug interaction or allergic reaction can be life threatening, so it’s important that your doctor is aware of your allergies and medications.

The Procedure is Temporary

When you elect to have Botox injections, you should be aware that the procedure is temporary. A series of shots generally lasts four to five months; after this, you’ll need to make another appointment and repeat the procedure. Regular injections will help to ensure continued results, whether you’re having the procedure for cosmetic or medical reasons.

These injections aren’t only used for cosmetic purposes. If you experience migraines, chronic pain, or cervical dystonia, you may also be eligible for the injections. Depressed patients, those with overactive bladders, and men with prostate issues may also gain relief from their symptoms through these injections. If you struggle with these issues, consult your doctor to see if Botox is right for you.

Using Pictures to Teach Narrative Writing with Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry

Subject: Sixth Grade Language Arts – Segregation and Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry

Time allotted: 90 minutes

Organization: large group

Objective: Students will demonstrate the understanding of the components in a narrative by using pictures about segregation to write the narrative.

Student worksheet available at http://www.trinaallen.com/rollofthunderstudent.html

Teaching Mode: Direct

Provision for Individual Differences: Students are heterogeneously mixed. The combination of modeling by the teacher and students will help to meet the needs of the varying abilities in the classroom. This assignment is open-ended enough for all students to find success “where they are” (Gardner, 2004).

Teaching Strategies: Some lecture, dialogue, modeling, discussion, group critique, planning.

Teaching Behavior focus: Focus will be as facilitator. Students will direct the lesson by creating the model used to demonstrate narrative writing.

Materials needed for this lesson:

oOne copy of a picture depicting segregation for each student– ideally with larger copies available for fine details.

oPaper- pencil

ooverhead, board and markers, or chalk

oGeneral classroom supplies

Lesson Activities:

Step 1. Anticipatory Set: (Motivation)

oAs review, ask students to write a definition of segregation. Volunteers will state their definitions. Write the definition on the board for students to refer to as they write their narratives. (Students should have read and discussed segregation and Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry prior to this lesson).

oDistribute pictures depicting segregation- one to each student. Or ask students to bring pictures from magazines that demonstrate segregation or reverse segregation. Hang several larger pictures on the wall so students can use them for greater detail.

oStudents will examine their picture individually for five minutes, writing details on the worksheet.

Note: Newspapers and magazines are good sources of pictures for this lesson as well as the following online museum Web sites.

Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia at Ferris State http://www.ferris.edu/htmls/news/jimcrow/index.htm

Norman Rockwell Museum http://www.nrm.org/

Online Tours of the National Gallery of Art http://www.nga.gov/onlinetours/index.shtm

Web Museum, Paris http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/

Step 2. Objective (Overview of learning outcomes to pupils):

Students will use pictures about segregation related to their unit of study for Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry to:

odemonstrate knowledge of the characteristics of narrative writing by writing a narrative.

odemonstrate connections between images and words by using narrative writing to build understanding of content.

ouse detailed vocabulary in writing their text.

Step 3. Presentation (Input) of information:

Students will review the following characteristics of narrative writing as a whole class: developing plot, character and setting using specific detail and ordering events clearly using chronological order.

Direct students’ attention to one picture on the board. As a whole class have students brainstorm possible events and characters this picture illustrates about segregation. Place the words or phrases under the following headings on the board as students share their ideas. Have students fill this information in on their worksheets.

Characters Setting Situation Feelings Vocabulary

Step 4. Modeling/Examples:

Use one character from the class table. Model writing a narrative on the board from the character’s point of view by calling on students to give the details. Encourage students to describe the picture and to invent an original story related to the segregation illustrated in the picture. Decide as a class whether to tell the story that leads up to the picture, or to narrate the events that follow the picture. Write events in chronological order on the board as well as including the character’s feelings and thoughts.

Step 5. Checking for Understanding:

Have students evaluate the story written on the board that they created by checking the blank before each element of narrative writing that they find in the class story about segregation.

1. _____ One character’s point of view.

2. _____ Details about the character .

3. _____ Details about the setting.

4. _____ Details about the situation.

5. _____ The story was in the correct chronological order.

6. _____ The narrative contained feelings and thoughts.

Circulate as students work to check for understanding. Call on students to share their evaluation to be sure all students understand the content.

Step 6. Guided Practice:

Using the picture that they were assigned (or the one they brought from home) students will brainstorm possible events and characters by filling their ideas in the same table used in step 3:

Characters Setting Situation Feelings Vocabulary

Circulate to check for understanding.

Step 7. Independent Practice:

Have students choose one character from the table and write a narrative similar to the one modeled for them in step 4 from that character’s point of view. Students will invent an original story related to the segregation illustrated in the picture. They will decide whether to tell the story that leads up to the picture, or to narrate the events that follow the picture. They will write events in chronological order and write about the character’s feelings and thoughts.

Step 8. Closure:

Students will be evaluated using the same rubric used in step five, Checking for Understanding. Refer students to that evaluation rubric and ask students to give the example from the story previously written on the board to illustrate each area from the rubric. The stories can be assigned as homework or completed as class work as per the preference of the teacher.

Note: This lesson is modified from Gardner, T. (2004). A Picture’s Worth a Thousand Words: From Image to Detailed Narrative, from http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=116.

Cold Sores and Staff Infection

Cold sores are a result of infection with the herpes simplex 1 virus. This is a viral infection that once you have contracted stays in your system for life. The only treatments available are antiviral management, because there is no cure.

A person who suffers from atopic dermatitis should be extremely cautious around anyone with a cold sore. Atopic dermatitis, better known as eczema, is rashes and irritations on the skin caused by any number of environmental allergies. This condition causes very itchy dry patches of skin that can break open and are prone to secondary infection from scratching. Studies have shown that patients with eczema are more likely to carry stash on their skin than those who do not.

The herpes simplex virus can spread rapidly in a person with atomic dermatitis. This can cause an infection known as eczema herpetic. It can spread over the whole body or remain localized in areas of active eczema outbreak. This situation should be monitored very carefully by a medical professional.

Herpes virus is very contagious and the spreading capability increases in the person who has eczema. The virus can spread over the whole body very quickly leaving you open to secondary infections and especially staph. As noted above the eczema carrier is also more apt to have the staph already present on their skin, thus when scratching sores or rashes, the staph can penetrate and make a bad situation even worse.

If you have eczema and been exposed to the herpes simplex virus, it is important that you see your doctor immediately. They may want to start you on an antiviral medication sooner rather than later to ward off a potential outbreak.

Signs that you may be getting a herpiticum outbreak will include blisters, sores within the areas of eczema. These tiny blisters will soon pop and spread the virus at an alarming rate. There is a chance of fatality if not treated properly. You may feel tired or feverish and notice some swelling in the area of the rash.

It is important to note even if you are not overly concerned for yourself, you should be concerned for your family and coworkers. The virus is very contagious and should be treated immediately. Besides early treatment can lessen the severity and duration of your outbreak.

In very severe cases, your doctor may prescribe a bleach bath to kill the bacteria. However, this should never be undertaken without a doctor’s advice as the wrong dilution can cause severe problems. Phototherapy and laser therapy are also alternative therapies that your doctor or dermatologist may consider.

The main thing to remember is prevention is better than cure, use good hand washing practices and keep yourself healthy. When you are run down your immune system becomes compromised and less able to fight off infection and the herpes particles.

Getting Your Motorcycle Ready For the Upcoming Riding Season

It’s getting close to the time of year when we all start looking forward to the upcoming riding season that’s just around the corner. So if you live in an area where you’ve had to store your bike for the winter, it’s time to start thinking about getting it ready to go.

Even if you live in an area where you don’t have to “mothball’ your bike for several months, it’s a good idea to run through a checklist of things that will help prevent problems and keep your riding time hassle free.

Basically, at the start of every riding season you want to do is the same stuff that’s required on a 500-mile service. All the fluids should be drained with new added including your front end and brake master cylinders. When you check your brake fluid, if it looks old, thick and brown, it’s time to replace it.

By addressing all of the items included in a 500-mile service procedure, this will give you the opportunity to get reacquainted with your motorcycle and put you in a position to check all the little things you might otherwise overlook. Obviously, the more you stay on top of your maintaining motorcycle, the more you stay away from the repairs that can end up costing big bucks!

Gas Tank and Air Filter: If you haven’t ridden your bike for several months and you didn’t take the time to drain the fuel out of the gas tank and carburetor float bowl, drain out the old fuel and put some fresh gas in before you fire it up. Don’t start a motor up with fuel that’s been sitting around all winter. You may want to also consider replacing the fuel line and filter because it’s been sitting around with “stale” gasoline in it and more than likely is a problem waiting to happen. Besides, a new piece of fuel line is pretty cheap insurance.

While you are inspecting the carburetor and the other fuel system components, it’s a good time to clean up the air filter area and check the air filter element. It should be removed and cleaned up or replaced especially if some form of life decided to move in for the winter make it a home.

Fluids: No matter what, the engine oil needs to be drained and replaced along with installing a new oil filter specific to your model motorcycle. When checking the oil levels on FLT and Dyna model motorcycles, don’t forget that they need to be sitting over on the kickstand. The other models need to be sitting up straight.

Remove the   transmission  drain plug and drain out the  transmission  fluid. Make sure that you clean up the magnetic plug before you reinstall it, replace the O-ring and then pour in the proper amount of  transmission  fluid. Remember when you are checking the fluid level in the  transmission  to keep the bike sitting up straight.

One of the more important things that needs your attention is the battery. If the battery is older than 2 years, and you have not had it hooked up to some sort of battery maintainer, don’t even screw around just replace it! You can bet when you least expect it (especially in the heat of summer) that bugger will let you down.

While you are doing all of this service work, it doesn’t hurt to throw in a set of new spark plugs. Check the gap and adjust them as necessary, put a little anti-seize on the threads and DO NOT over torque them. Take a look at the plug wires and clean up the boots real good or replace them if they’re starting to look heavily worn.

Cables and Belts: Check the clutch cable for free travel and lube the pivot pin and the cable. The cables should be removed and cleaned up real good at least once a year, but if you’ve stayed on top of maintaining them, you probably don’t need to. The same things go for your throttle cables and remember to use the proper product for this application. Do NOT use WD 40!

Do a real good visual inspection on your drive belt. Make sure the alignment is correct and that you’ve got proper adjustment while keeping an eye out for any holes or fraying of the belt. This could lead to some problems down the road that will more than likely happen in the most off the wall places and I can tell you from experience, there is no easy roadside fix for a broken drive belt.

If you’re like most riders, you’ve probably never changed your fork oil. To get the best performance out a front end, the fluid should changed once a year regardless of what kind of miles you put on the bike. Also don’t think if you’re running a Springer you can simply ignore any sort of front-end maintenance. There are several items that need to be inspected and maintained on them, so check your manufacturers service manual.

After you’ve gone through all of these items, start the engine and let it warm up nice and easy with out revving it up. If you own an earlier model Evo, you may experience oil running out of the breather tube when you first start it up, but don’t get shook up because this can happen if the bike has been sitting around for a while. The oil will bleed down into the bottom end and when you start the bike up, that oil will get pushed out the breather tube.

After the bike is all warmed up, check the idle speed and do whatever adjustment is necessary. Check the kill switch to make sure it’s working OK and you should be set on all the basic stuff. Also, it doesn’t hurt to change the engine oil and filter again after you run it about 500 miles.

Addressing these basic items can really save you a lot headaches while on the road and help insure a hassle free riding season.

Infectious Diarrhea

Clinical Presentation: Every year throughout the world more than 5 million people-most of them kids younger than 1 year-die of acute infectious looseness of the bowels. Although death is really a uncommon outcome of infectious diarrhea within the United States, morbidity is substantial.

It is estimated that you will find more than 200 million episodes each year, resulting in 1.8 million hospitalizations at a price of $6 billion per year. The morbidity and mortality attributable to diarrhea are largely due to loss of intravascular volume and electrolytes, with resultant cardiovascular failure. For example, adults with cholera can excrete a lot more than 1 L of fluid per hour.

Contrast this with the typical volume of fluid lost daily within the stools (150 mL), and it is clear why massive fluid losses connected with infectious diarrhea can lead to dehydration, cardiovascular collapse, and death. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract infections can present with primarily upper tract symptoms (nausea, vomiting, crampy epigastric pain), small intestine symptoms (profuse watery diarrhea), or large intestine signs or symptoms (tenesmus, fecal urgency, bloody looseness of the bowels).

Sources of infection consist of person-to-person   transmission  (fecal-oral spread of Shigella), water-borne  transmission  (Cryptosporidium), food-borne  transmission  (Salmonella or S aureus foods poisoning), and overgrowth following antibiotic administration (Clostridium difficile).

Etiology: A wide range of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa can infect the GI tract. However, in the majority of instances, symptoms are self-limited, and diagnostic evaluation isn’t performed. Individuals presenting to medical attention are biased toward the subset with more severe signs or symptoms (eg, high fevers or hypotension), immunocompromise (eg, HIV or neutropenia), or prolonged duration (eg, chronic diarrhea defined as lasting 14 days). An exception is large outbreaks of food-borne sickness, in which epidemiologic investigations may detect individuals with milder variants of illness.

Pathogenesis: A comprehensive approach to GI tract infections starts using the classic host-agent-environment interaction model. A quantity of host elements influence GI tract infections. Individuals at extremes of age and with comorbid conditions (eg, HIV infection) are at higher risk for symptomatic infection.

Medications that alter the GI microenvironment or destroy typical bacterial flora (eg, antacids or antibiotics) also predispose individuals to infection. Microbial agents responsible for GI sickness could be categorized according to kind of organism (bacterial, viral, protozoal), propensity to attach to various anatomic sites (stomach, little bowel, colon), and pathogenesis (enterotoxigenic, cytotoxigenic, enteroinvasive).

Environmental elements can be divided into three broad categories based on mode of  transmission : (1) water borne, (2) foods borne, and (three) individual to person. GI tract infections can involve the stomach, leading to nausea and vomiting, or affect the small and large bowel, with looseness of the bowels as the predominant symptom.

The term “gastroenteritis” classically denotes infection of the stomach and proximal little bowel. Organisms causing this disorder consist of Bacillus cereus, S aureus, and a quantity of viruses (rotavirus, norovirus). B cereus and S aureus produce a preformed neurotoxin that, even in the absence of viable bacteria, is capable of causing disease, and these toxins represent major leads to of foods poisoning.

Although the exact mechanisms are poorly understood, it’s thought that neurotoxins act locally, through stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system having a resultant improve in peristaltic activity, and centrally, through activation of emetic centers within the brain. The spectrum of diarrheal infections is typified by the diverse clinical manifestations and mechanisms via which E coli can trigger diarrhea.

Colonization from the human GI tract by E coli is universal, usually occurring within hours following birth. Nevertheless, when the host organism is exposed to pathogenic strains of E coli not normally present in the bowel flora, localized GI illness or even systemic sickness may occur.

You will find five major classes of diarrheogenic E coli: enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), and enteroinvasive (EIEC). Functions typical to all pathogenic E coli are evasion of host defenses, colonization of intestinal mucosa, and multiplication with host cell injury.

This organism, like all GI pathogens, should survive transit via the acidic gastric environment and be able to persist within the GI tract despite the mechanical force of peristalsis and competition for scarce nutrients from existing bacterial flora. Adherence can be nonspecific (at any part from the intestinal tract) or, a lot more commonly, particular, with attachment occurring at well-defined anatomic areas.

Once colonization and multiplication happen, the stage is set for host injury. Infectious diarrhea is clinically differentiated into secretory, inflammatory, and hemorrhagic kinds, with different pathophysiologic mechanisms accounting for these diverse presentations. Secretory (watery) diarrhea is caused by a quantity of bacteria (eg, Vibrio cholerae, ETEC, EAggEC), viruses (rotavirus, norovirus), and protozoa (Giardia, Cryptosporidium).

These organisms attach superficially to enterocytes in the lumen of the small bowel. Stool examination is notable for the absence of fecal leukocytes, even though in uncommon instances there’s occult blood in the stools. Some of these pathogens elaborate enterotoxins, proteins that improve intestinal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production, primary to net fluid secretion. The classic example is cholera.

The bacterium V cholerae creates cholera toxin, which leads to prolonged activation of epithelial adenylyl cyclase within the small bowel, primary to secretion of massive amounts of fluid and electrolytes into the intestinal lumen. Clinically, the patient presents with copious diarrhea (“rice-water stools”), progressing to dehydration and vascular collapse without having vigorous volume resuscitation.

ETEC, a common trigger of acute diarrheal sickness in young kids and the most typical trigger of looseness of the bowels in travelers returning to the United States from developing countries, creates two enterotoxins. The heat-labile toxin (LT) activates adenylyl cyclase in a manner analogous to cholera toxin, whereas the heat-stable toxin (ST) activates guanylyl cyclase activity.

Inflammatory diarrhea is really a result of bacterial invasion of the mucosal lumen, with resultant cell death. Patients with this syndrome are usually febrile, with complaints of crampy lower abdominal discomfort as nicely as diarrhea, which might contain visible mucous. The term dysentery is utilized when there are substantial numbers of fecal leukocytes and gross blood.

Pathogens connected with inflammatory looseness of the bowels consist of EIEC, Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Entamoeba histolytica. Shigella, the prototypical trigger of bacillary dysentery, invades the enterocyte through formation of an endoplasmic vacuole, which is lysed intracellularly. Bacteria then proliferate within the cytoplasm and invade adjacent epithelial cells.

Production of a cytotoxin, the Shiga toxin, leads to local cell destruction and death. EIEC resembles Shigella both clinically and with respect towards the mechanism of invasion of the enterocyte wall; however, the specific cytotoxin associated with EIEC has not yet been identified. Hemorrhagic diarrhea, a variant of inflammatory diarrhea, is primarily triggered by EHEC.

Infection with E coli O157:H7 has been connected with a quantity of deaths from the hemolytic-uremic syndrome, with a number of well-publicized outbreaks related to contaminated foods. EHEC leads to a broad spectrum of clinical disease, with manifestations including (1) asymptomatic infection, (2) watery (nonbloody) looseness of the bowels, (three) hemorrhagic colitis (bloody, noninflammatory diarrhea), and (4) hemolytic-uremic syndrome (an acute illness, primarily of children, characterized by anemia and renal failure). EHEC doesn’t invade enterocytes; nevertheless, it does create two Shiga-like toxins (Stx1 and Stx2) that closely resemble the Shiga toxin in structure and function. After binding of EHEC towards the cell surface receptor, the A subunit of the Shiga toxin catalyzes the destructive cleavage of ribosomal RNA and halts protein synthesis, leading to cell death.

Clinical Manifestations: Clinical manifestations of GI infections vary depending on the on website of involvement For instance, in staphylococcal foods poisoning, symptoms develop several hours after ingestion of foods contaminated with neurotoxin-producing S aureus. The symptoms of staphylococcal food poisoning are profuse vomiting, nausea, and abdominal cramps.

Diarrhea is variably present with agents leading to gastroenteritis. Profuse watery (noninflammatory, nonbloody) diarrhea is connected with bacteria that have infected the small intestine and elaborated an enterotoxin (eg, Clostridium perfringens, V cholerae). In contrast, colitis-like symptoms (lower abdominal pain, tenesmus, fecal urgency) and an inflammatory or bloody diarrhea occur with bacteria that more generally infect the large intestine.

The incubation period is usually longer (> 3 days) for bacteria that localize towards the large intestine, and colonic mucosal invasion can occur, causing fever, bacteremia, and systemic symptoms.

Using Power Tools 101

The power tools of today are not the same as the ones that were carefully placed on the pegboard near your grandfather’s workbench- they are actually quite far from it. Modern technology has made amazing advances in the simplest of features, including automatic shut-off, enhanced guarding and more resilient materials just to name a few. But one trait has come to be worth its weight in gold within the power tool industry, and that’s the owner’s manual.

Today’s manuals not only have better graphics showing its users what each part of the device should look like (and what to do when it doesn’t), many individual manufacturers will have explicit directions and instructions for the safety and maintenance of each individual power tool. Of course, no instructions are completely fool proof, especially if the content of such manuals isn’t completely understood by the user. This is why many manufacturers have implemented training seminars and classes for both companies and individuals on the proper procedures for optimum performance and safety. Local home improvement stores often hold such classes and seminars on a regular basis.

However, a bit of common sense and know-how never hurt anyone, so there are a few safety guidelines which should be followed by all users of power tools. For example, wearing the proper clothing is essential, and you should never wear loose clothing that could easily get caught in a power tool. Safety gear is crucial- hard hat, safety goggles and gloves, along with the proper footwear. Using the right tool, whether it be size or something else, for the job at hand, including the right type of extension cord (indoor, outdoor, proper length) if applicable. The work area should be clean, uncluttered and well lit. Keep all electric tools away from water and flammables. Do not use power tools with frayed or damaged cords. Damaged parts anywhere in a power tool, including saw blades and drill bits, can cause damage to the tool itself or the individual performing the task. Unplug all electric power tools when finished with or before changing to another tool.

As far as the maintenance aspect of such power tools, common sense is again of the highest importance. For example, making sure that the proper guards are placed on saw blades when not in use is both a safety and maintenance issue. Saw blades need to be sharp to deliver the best performance possible, but can also be incredibly dangerous, so taking the proper preventive measures will yield the best results in all aspects, not just project outcome.

For more information on power tool basics, the U.S. government has many publications that can be of high value to consumers. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission offers product recall information, and OSHA has a few such publishings regarding both general industry and personal use of power tools.